trip reports

The Spirit of Solve For Why, Conclusion

The participants and assorted hangers-on, including your shady blogging servant, were listening. Christian Soto, cash game expert and tournament debauch, was wedged into one end of the living room sofa, a contradiction in posture and attitude. His arm was comfortably, even carelessly thrown across the black leather back of the living room sofa facing the endlessly running but silent sports channel. Soto’s face, on the other hand, was tilted in a subconscious display of defiance that he was fighting to control. His mouth was contemptuous, his voice defensive: the midst of the struggle to keep one’s composure.

Matt Berkey, mastermind of the Solve For Why Academy, evangelical health obsessive, and administrator of this palatial, half-decorated poker headquarters, loomed over his seated partner. (Las Vegas’ soldier of poker is nearly always at attention and uniformed for jumping jacks, while Soto is most often languid and prepped for World of Warcraft.) The two instructors were nearly shouting at each other despite a physical distance of inches, and clearly a stray remark away from starting: a couple up in arms while the children sit riveted, unable to anticipate what might happen next.

The evening prior, one of my students had made a questionable play, and this belated breakdown had broken out to everyone’s surprise, right before the third and final day’s lecture. With leverage having been met on the turn, Steve ripped in a weak hand (was it a bluff? a value bet? well, I’ll explain some other time) and was snapped off by a committed, better one. I knew Steve’s game and tendencies, and why he had done it, but I too was one of the children, and submitted to letting the parents test each other’s nerves rather than try to explain. Steve, normally voluble and fun, was quiet too, a little aghast at somehow having triggered such heated discussion. Matt, however, suffered from no such reluctance, and is not one to pull punches or spare his opinion. In addition to a forceful argument, he landed a few light ad hominems to the ad hoc discussion, while Soto, a mostly private and moody man who mostly keeps his own counsel, bristled and flinched intractably.

Another day in the life of Solve For Why. It’s not all cranberries and ketones.

It was at this moment that a gaunt and bearded figure emerged from the plethora of faces that fill the poker world and were now crowded into one of its hotspots. Stern beyond his years, Nick Howard had been in the commentary booth, some of the lectures, and now, after having been literally bent over in attentive concentration, emerged to speak.

The hive mind of various poker forums contain a great deal of puling criticism of Howard – well, as they do of everyone – but anyone familiar with the philosophy of the game and of people can tell he is a bright spot for poker. His penchant for working with particular vocabulary – as Seidman himself wrote, words matter – reveals his understanding not only of the game but of the people behind those “aliases.” Nevertheless, Howard is extraordinarily grim for a young man. It’s a reflection and reaction, perhaps, of his travails or the seriousness of his recent redirection in both life and game. This mood, I think, will pass, as he finds the natural palliative of personal success and more ease in an existence that now straddles both the inside and outside of the online poker mainstream.

“Polarization is the great profit maker of poker…” Howard began to succinctly explain what Steve’s error was and to emphasize how important it was for everyone in the room to understand his point thoroughly. Nick’s arms cut the air with emphasis, yet he did not he look at anyone, still staring at the floor. He had been thinking about his words very carefully while the disagreement blossomed, and now released a full speech as prepared and polished as one of his clips on YouTube. The room, full of outsiders who aspire to a plastic rectangle revolution, became even more serious, as if a cabal or conspiracy were at work, here on family Saturday morning, daring to meet even in the day time. Spies are everywhere.

In addition to providing clarity on the hand in dispute, Howard broke the land war between Berkey and Soto. Ever-modest Jordan Young smiled and said it’s “often much worse.” The cabal headed upstairs and the whirlwind conclusion of the Academy began in earnest.

While the students sat fascinated during the final lecture, I realized I was in fact growing restless. I understood most of the concepts, would need time on my own to examine the summary line recommendations, but I don’t think it was weariness from a long weekend of poker ideas which was preying on my mind. Even given the opportunity to sit in the booth with Berkey, Soto, and Howard, I was not enthused by the third day, and ended up walking in the now empty yard. It had been an extremely hard year, the nadir of happiness, and having shepherded my little group far enough, I needed to reflect.

What was I, not poker coach Persuadeo, doing here?image

Motivation derives from desire: the unforced, unarguable and dreaming vision of what you want. The surrender of unimportant things to the vision is key to enlivening this desire, because now choices are made. I admire the men and women who run and attend and support the Academy. I know their passion, remember it, recall it, can still almost taste it – but cannot hear or touch it, as if a behind a sound-proof, crystal clear glass. Was that – such a strange, unfamiliar feeling – envy?

Yet the small things of life continue as I fight on, even if I felt outside the group because of the lack of clarity in my life. My understanding of our game only grows stronger, despite my troubles, and I was in fact about to realize a powerful lesson at Solve For Why, one that surprisingly has nothing to do with the X’s and O’s of poker.

I’ve always been wary of too much mental game stuff. The idea that most players – who can barely explain what a bet really is yet want to make thousands of them – need emotional stewardship to wager Ace King or shut it down is obviously a ridiculous one, but here at the Academy I saw game preparation in a most natural place: support for a draining and high-variance approach to poker. The intensity demanded by an offensive strategy does exceed that of standard play. Berkey himself reported being exhausted, completely worn out after his sessions – and I believe him. In more than one respect, Berkey is attempting to quantify gameflow into his strategy – this is why he thinks players like Ivey can ultimately be explained and that the “rabbit hole” of poker goes further than PIO’s machine dream of mutually assured destruction. While I was on alert from the slightly sanctimonious and feathery voice of the mental game coach, one suggesting a certain insincerity and need to convince, I had seen up close who might really need this stuff and why.

The players themselves put on a lively show at the RFID table over the course of the Academy. They had especially impressed the first day, many having been prepared through S4Y’s Capped Game Webinar or my summary of it. On the second day, however, Berkey threw them all for a loop at the beginning of the lecture, coyly saying he’d be flatting a lot in response to the almost absurd level of aggression at the table. Well, that was more than a dog whistle, and the second session became a miasma of calling and confused post-flop play. Soto, amazed on the first day by the level of play, was visibly in the dumps. “What happened?!” he complained.

The soldier of poker, on the other hand, was nonplussed. As always seemed to be the case, Berkey had an explanation for everything, and certainly did not lack one here. “I expected this.” Not only had he sown doubt in their minds that aggression was what was wanted in every pre-flop spot, he knew just how difficult it is to take an idea and run with it. “They are just at the beginning of implementation.” Indeed, at Solve For Why, everything about a poker player’s education is questioned because the vocabulary of microstrategy is abandoned. The onion dip ideas of value bets and bluffs are suddenly crowded at their two-cover table with capping, advancing and delaying leverage, and frequencies-as-image are all squeezing in, ready to party and explore the menu. It’s a lot for a bewildered poker player to incorporate in one, two or three days.

It also pointed to just how deceptive my task is as coach. It struck me that as much as I imagine a wise word or hint to be ideal, a construction which I like to use in order to induce the student to find the answer himself, this is not really enough sometimes. I was surprised to see many of the plays made, but explanations of their origins were all available. Real depth is not something most low stakes players have thought about thoroughly or even had to deal with on a regular basis. In any case, I’d end up running a five-week course exploring the three essentials of the Solve For Why formulation, and it was anything but wasted time for those who had invested so much. The Academy has wisely started offering the same and other support for students.

Soto remained perplexed, though – so troubled in fact that he wanted to go out with the group for dinner, and even later, join Porter and I for drinks to go over our impressions of the teaching. We were somewhat lucky to see them, for as well as Greg knows his way around the poker table, he’s apparently quite lost once behind the wheel. Ferrying Soto, he meandered to two restaurant locations before finding us mid-meal. Later we wandered through the night and a maze of on-ramps in his appropriately anonymous grey hybrid – Porter is the opposite of flamboyant – to locate the beers. Google Maps is killing the directional instinct.

Poker players forget the world easily. It was Cinco de Mayo, apparently, and he had driven us to an appropriately decorated dump near a highway exit. With the music blaring, we couldn’t talk so walked our beers louchely to a table by the closed strip mall entrance and talked over the day. While I thought the players were overcompensating on account of Berkey’s advice to slow down, Soto found other explanations for the sudden drop-off in play level. We went into the pedagogy and emerged with what would likely be good feedback for the Academy. I’m imagining the future boot camps will only continue to improve. The drinks went down well in the warm Vegas night, and somehow a breeze happily emerged. The day had ended serenely.

Sitting in the declining sun on the final day after I had retired from the commentary booth, the camp ended serenely, too. I shot some hoops with Christian H and chatted a bit with Nick. Bill won the most chips and thus the coaching package; in fact, all my students had performed well.

We gathered for a final dinner, getting a private room and a plentiful spread of Italian dishes to accompany a discussion of what we’d all been through. Steve opened up about a key issue that was holding him back and everyone offered advice. As the communal meal of competitors ended, the big winner Bill participated in his first credit card roulette: naturally he got stuck with the check, and naturally, I kept up my incredible run of evading it, to Soto’s chagrin. Charitable and generous without the pressure of Berkey around, we all had a great time before saying our good-byes. Porter went off into the night, hopefully driving south, and the rest of us went to get a little sleep and catch our respective flights.

However, I wasn’t quite done, nor was serenity the real end. Money never sleeps, Gecko tells us, and nor do the founders. I was invited back to Berkey’s to interview Soto for Red Chip (available in their Pro Member section), take part in some (unused) vlog footage, and possibly relax with some post-Academy jacuzzi time under the dim Vegas night. I’d planned to skip it, as I had nothing to wear.

I arrived late in the evening. The poker palace, so full of players and production just hours before, was now as quiet as any suburban Sunday eve. Soon enough, though, Berkey’s dog was excited, for master was home from a big game session at Aria. We all gathered in the giant bedroom-cum-lecture hall while Matt unwound.

“How’d it go?” Soto asked laconically.

“They embarrassed themselves,” said the very unlaconic Berkey. At one point in his session, he’d jammed and a high-stakes reg had tanked forever before showing and folding.

“He offered me a thousand to show. I told him, ‘I won’t show for twenty-thousand.’”

The information war matters to the soldier of poker.

Young had played, too, in his regular spot at the Bellagio, and the discussion went on. In one spot he confessed to having been a bit of a POW.

“You know how much I hate discussing hands,” Berkey, lover of concepts, replied helpfully, “but that was terrible.”

Busy as ever, Matt ended the talk and getting new vlog footage took precedence. After we’d completed the filming of both pieces (and overcame some battery and novice operator issues) it was time for the Academy partners to hit the jacuzzi. Instead of letting me make my exit, though, Soto insisted I find some trunks somewhere in Berkey’s immense and filled closet. We all keep some vanities.

Ostensibly this was a well-earned recovery from a long weekend of teaching and their poker sessions, but in reality, the money continued to be awake. Berkey drove everyone forward with pressing matters. The dark and privacy meant it was the right hour for the real blood and guts of the business. Staking, backers, debt, plans, moves, opponents, strategy, and more all came up. Truths were told, criticism leveled.

However, for all the harshness, something else emerged. What does Berkey want, I asked when I started these essays, what would make him content and satisfy the seemingly remorseless drive forward that characterizes the Solve For Why leader? Few want to grind forever; competition is unending but life is limited – how can it really be the answer? Where and when do we find peace?

At last, I heard what it was for Berkey and saw the gleam of happiness at its thought.

“I’d love to help people with nutrition and all the things they don’t teach you in school,” Berkey explained. For the first time, was that a little bit of shyness in his voice and expression? He explained that the vlog and many other endeavors were leading this way – some sort of educational stream or vlog or program was on his mind. “I’m building toward this.”

Why not now, I asked. He has followers, social media, a presence. What is gained by not giving this to the poker community in the present, when they need it?

A man who leapt from 5/10 to Ivey’s room was justifying caution.

A brief silence, and for the first time on our visit, Berkey had no quick answer. He was, at last, surprised, and his guard and vehement personality briefly subsided.

“I suppose I could…”

What was it? Berkey at the kitchen counter, showing us how to make a healthy meal? The right smoothie? At the desk demonstrating the financial planning we never had in school? What can he do to help us all? What was once missing from his life that he can now give to others?

A moment of contentment in a vision of the future – Berkey’s motivation, briefly clear and bright as the wild city he lived in.

Everyone had learned something at this Academy.

The partners moved the conversation along, and strategizing for the present problems and ambitions of the partners resumed. The fight was long from over. Berkey shook off his dreaming and resumed, as he inevitably does, the lead.

That’s the spirit.


Part I     Part II


Bright Days of Vegas, Part I


  1. That was great, and thank you very much for sharing. Your description of various parts of the weekend and the characters involved had a way of transporting me to an eery mental region that reminded me of Kubrick’s imagination and creativity at work when he created Private Joker – in the movie Full Metal Jacket – as a way for the audience to see the obvious, absurd, and fascinating And reading about Berkey had me upright in my seat, completely focused, exactly as I am every time I watch the scene from Apocalypse Now with Brando as the fearsome, appalling, never short on words, and riveting Col. Kurtz.

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The OOP Lexicon is a user-developed poker glossary.

Absolute Position
Being last to act (e.g. closest to the button) postflop.

Advancing Leverage
Aggressive actions intended to shift the leverage point closer to the current street.

A bluff or value hand which is a natural candidate for balancing another hand because of their shared qualities, such as AA and AK; usually helps planning range splitting and line construction.

Auto profit threshold (APT)
A bluff made with positive expectation resulting from the opponent under defending vis-a-vis bet sizing. The inverse of MDF.

Choosing to support either value bets or bluffs with their converse.

A bet is a proposition.  It’s the first offer on the pot with regard to the outcome of the game. Each player, in turn, has the opportunity to lay or change the price on the pot to the rest of the players. “The language of poker.” The bet, as opposed to the raise, is most often and most easily allied to the merged pricing construction.

To remove combinations of hands from a range based on cards in your hand or on the board.

Cards which influence our combinatorial assumptions. Ex: We face resistance on T76ss while we hold As7d. Both our cards act as blockers. Our ace of spades blocks (limits) a number of flush draws our opponent could hold, while our seven blocks a number of two pair and sets our opponent could hold. *See also Block and Unblock

Blocker Bet
A small bet made by an out-of-position player.

Board Texture
The available community cards and the set of conditions which inform its relationship to a logical range.

The worst hands in a betting range.  Depending on context this could be the worst hand in a value bet range or the bluffing section of polarized range.

A range descriptor indicating a range shape with a specific high or low boundary.  A range bounded high won't contain some number of the best linear hands ranked from the top down.  This is equivalent to a "capped" range.  A range bounded low won't contain some number of the worst linear hands ranked from the bottom up.  This is often useful to describe a range that doesn't include any air or very weak hands.

A strategic mode in which a player is attempting to deny their opponent(s) equity share of the pot through aggression. Often referred to as “denying equity” or “buying up equity”.

A range is capped when it represents little to no nutted combinations as confirmed by prior action.

A continuation bet. A bet made by the player with initiative as a continuation of their initiative on a prior street.

The ability to accurately range an opponent based on all available information at a decision point.  An understanding of your hands exact equity.

Closing Action
Acting last where no subsequent action is possible behind you.  For example calling a UTG raise in the BB or calling in position postflop with no players behind.

Cold Call/Cold Bet
An action is considered “cold” when it comes from a player entering into the pot has not previously put chips voluntarily in the pot. Ex: the UTG opens, the BTN 3bets. If the SB were to call or raise, it would be a cold-call or a cold-4bet.

The branch of mathematics the deals with finite number sets. Used in poker in determining the amount of combinations of certain hands in a range.

When a blind that is not the biggest blind calls the amount of the biggest blind. Ex: At $2/$5, action folds around to the SB and the SB completes. Meaning they just call. The BB can complete when there is a straddle.

A capped range that contains only middling value hands. A range without the polarized portion.

Logical advancement of combinations across streets.

Dark Side of the Deck
The large swath of hands, often off-suit, that fall outside of conventional playable recommendations. Counter-equity hands.

Dead Money
Money in the pot that is not being fought for.  A passive player creates dead money when they call a bet preflop and looking to play fit-or-fold postflop. Dead Money is often confused with the money in the pot.

Delayed Cbet
A cbet made on the turn by the preflop raiser when the flop checked through.

Delaying Leverage
Passive actions intended to maintain a likely late street leverage point, or possibly to avoid a leverage point entirely.

A strategic break from one’s standard construction as an exploit of a particular player’s profile or construction.

Diminishing Medium Value Category
A Seidman concept in which when one’s middling value hand range is too small and transparent to our opponent and thus either that range should be shifted into the top of a polarized range or the nutted portion should be shifted into the medium value range. Ex: AQo or TT being 3bet preflop.

A cbet that is less than the preflop raise. Ex: BTN opens to $25, we 3bet to $90 from the SB, BTN calls. On the flop we cbet $70.

Dry Board
A board texture that yields relatively few logical hands value. Often containing one medium or high card and disconnected low cards. Ex: Q53r, T622r.

Dual Mentalities
A Seidman concept in which when we decide to go postflop with a weak hand against a nutted range, we should either be looking to out flop it or steal the pot away. We base our decision against the player type we are up against and never go post with both mentalities at once.

Dynamic Board
A flop texture in which the runout is very likely to change the order of top ranking hands. Ex: 954tt, 742r.

Effective Stack
The smallest stack to VPIP in a given hand. Their stack decides the amount of money that can be played for or threatened before an all-in.

Effective nuts
A value hand that can be played for stacks as if it were the actual nuts.  This is a relative hand ranking based on range assumptions and opponent type.

A measure of how well the equity of a hand is deployed. Efficiency can also be used as a measure of what is risked vs what is gained for a given bet size.

Either/Or Philosophy
A Seidman concept in which a particular street can be a very good spot for value, meaning our opponent is never folding, or a very good spot to bluff, meaning our opponent is never calling, but that those spots cannot be concurrent.

Borrowed from economics, a measure of the sensitivity of a range or hand relative to the price offered.  Ranges (or hands) described as elastic will narrow, sometimes quickly, in response to increases in price.  Those described as inelastic will not.

The percent pot share of a holding or range on any given street if the hand were to go to showdown with no further betting action.

Equity Pusher
A analytic approach to the game in which a player views the correct actions only through the lens of their hands equity vs. their opponent’s range. Often this player type has a lack of understanding of overall strategy and plays their range face up with few bluffs.

Expected Value
The mathematical formula for how much a player’s action is expected to make with their hand vs. their opponent’s range. EV = ($towin * %ofwin) - ($tolose * %ofloss)

Face Up
A player is playing their range “face up” when their actions directly correspond with their desired outcome. Ex: A player bets half-pot three streets with a range that has no bluffs. A player 3bets to 7x with JJ.

False Polarization
Otherwise known as Faux-Po; a polarizing action taken with a merged range.

The result of losing your entire table stakes. All the way down to the felt.

A call of a cbet with a weak holding with the likely intention of taking the pot away when the opponent shuts down. Often done by an in position preflop caller.

The convergence of positions, stack depths, and preceding actions at a given decision point.

A mathematical formula developed by Phil Galfond for calculating the expected value of one’s range construction vs. an opponent’s holding.

A computer programming term that means "garbage in, garbage out" which also applies to poker forums when a poster seeks an in-depth conversation about a hand, but fail to provide pertinent information such as stack sizes, bets sizes, table dynamics and player tendencies.

Game Theory
The applied science of combining mathematical models with logic to craft winning poker strategies.

Game Theory Optimal
A set of strategies is GTO if no player can unilaterally deviate and increase his average profit. ~ Will Tipton.  GTO does not mean best possible response, highest EV, or maximally exploitative play.

Implied Odds
Additional value likely to be accrued if you make your hand on a later street.

Sometimes referred to as the betting lead, a common situation in which the passive player yields to the aggressive player postflop, or the last aggressor continues betting on subsequent streets.

A bet or raise intended to force out the rest of the field in order to play heads up against a weaker opponent who has entered the pot through limping, raising, or posting the blinds.

Loose aggressive player type. Generally overused and inaccurate.

A bet made from out of position after a passive action. Often referred to as a donk bet on the flop.

He knows that I know that he knows I know.

A bet or raise that signals the hand will be played for stacks.  Within reason, it is accomplished by betting with a sizing that will create RSP equal to 1 on the following street.

Limp First In

A consecutive range of hands decreasing in strength from top to bottom; generally meaning value hands. Equivalent to "merged."

Lockdown Board
A board on which the nuts have often already been made.  More prevalent in PLO but sometimes useful in no-limit, for example on monotone flops and boards with available common straights e.g. JT9, T98, 987, etc.

1) A range of hands that includes both strong and medium value; 2) in reference to medium value; 3) the merged construction describes the natural representation of a wide range through a bet.

Mini Stop-N-Go
A Seidman concept, a line taken by a OOP PFR where flop is check/called and turn is lead.

Minimum Defense Frequency (MDF)
The necessary defending (calling/raising) frequency to prevent an opponent from auto-profiting.  The inverse of APT.

Natural Action
A check, bet, or raise which is exactly suited to a player's range and situation (e.g. a pfr's continuation bet on AK2r).

A player who will not put chips into the pot without a very strong and sometimes only nutted hand.

The best possible hand.

Nuts-To-Air Ratio (NAR)
In a polarized betting line, the ratio of value to bluff.  As used by Seidman, not limited to polarization but sometimes used to label general opponent tendency of value to bluff.

Old Man Coffee. Typically an older, retired player that likes to play bingo with ATC, but will only continue with the nuts.

The first voluntary action. The first action or bet to voluntarily enter the pot.

A bet that is more than the size of the pot.

Perceived Range
Refers to the range of hands that your opponent thinks you could have in a certain playing situation. This can be interpreted and thus misinterpreted from your playing style and position at the table.

A range consisting of very strong and very weak hands.

Post Oak Bluff
A small bluff on a late street that has little chance of winning the pot.  Generally interpreted as “gutless” in the past but now fulfilling certain functions as betting efficiencies are understood.

Positional Protection
When the strength of a range is perceived to be capped or uncapped based on which position an action is taken from.

When an action or player is perceived to have strong hands in its range.

Protection Bet
A wager which denies equity to hands which will only give action if they significantly improve; "a value bet which does not want a call."

The rejection of the offered price and the laying of a new higher price.  Raises represent a more narrow range of hands and trend towards polarization.

Range Advantage
Implementation or study tool that refers to 1) most basically, equity measurement of one range against another; 2) or also including a combination of further factors including availability of nutted hands, the nuances of the runout, and positional protection.

Range Manipulation
Deliberate line work/bet sizing made to narrow a range or keep a range wide.

Range Switch
A deliberate change in range composition made to thwart a player who is reading our range too accurately in any spot.  Reduces transparency, fights assumptions, and wins the leveling war if implemented correctly.

Ratio of Stack To Pot
RSP. The stack to pot ratio at any point in a hand, generally used post-flop as opposed to Stack to Pot Ratio.

Taking a hand to showdown and realizing its full equity.  Generally used with regard to passive actions.

The mutual exchange of chips resulting from similar play and ideas.  Reciprocity is a common bi-product of group-think.  A true edge by definition cannot be reciprocal.

Relative Position
A player’s position measured against the aggressor's position.  Generally this is used going to the flop.  For example, if UTG raises and several players call behind, calling in the big blind would give you the best relative position.  You will act after seeing how the field responds to a likely continuation from the preflop aggressor.  In the same scenario calling immediately after the preflop aggressor results in the worst relative position.  You will have to act immediately after a continuation without seeing how the remaining players will respond.  Strong relative position confers an information edge.

The ability of hand to maintain equity across streets against a betting range or as part of a betting range.

Reverse Implied Odds (RIO)
Hands that often win small pots or lose large pots suffer from reverse implied odds.

Popularized by Mathew Janda, a descriptor for how well a hand retains equity over streets of play.  Hands described as robust have equity that does not suffer as an opponent's range becomes stronger.  Often these hands are currently both strong and invulnerable, or have the ability to become very strong by the river, relative to the opponent's range.

Fourth and Fifth Street cards following a given flop texture.

Scale of Protection
Poker theorem which states that the more protected or strong an opponent's range is, the higher the degree of denial or retention a counter will require.

Sklansky Bucks
Dollars won (or lost) in expected value regardless of actual hand result.

Any one of many possible poker archetypes found at low stakes games.

A reraise made after a player has raised and one or more players has called in-between.

Static Board
A flop texture in which the runout is unlikely to change the order of top ranking hands. Ex: AK7r, KK4r.

A passive action followed by an aggressive action, out of position.  For example, a call followed by a lead on the next street.

Streets of Value
A crude shorthand measurement for how much betting a hand can tolerate and still be best at showdown more often than not.

Tight aggressive opponent type. Generally overused and misapplied.

TAG's Dilemma
The paradox created by having a top-heavy range played so aggressively that it misuses equity vis-à-vis position and holding.

The Great Range Fantasy
The common idea that we know our opponent’s range and frequencies precisely; most commonly seen in post-hoc analysis to justify microedge decisions.

Thin Value
A bet that is only slightly more likely to be called by worse than by better. Associated with the merged pricing construction and bet-fold lines.

Three Fundamentals
The most fundamental variables for decision making: position, stack size, and community cards.

The best hands in a given range.

Two-Way Bet
A bet that expects calls from worse hands and incorrect folds at the same time, a simultaneous value bet and bluff line.

The psychological effect of feeling like you’re losing because your stack size isn’t as large as it once was during a session, even though it’s more than what you’re in the game for.

(e.g. You bought in for $100, ran it up $450, but now only have $175 in front of you.)

A hand that has no negative card removal effects on the target range.  Bottom set, for example, unblocks top pair top kicker.

A range that is perceived to contain the nuts in any given line.  Capped ranges may become uncapped during transitions for example from preflop to flop, or flop to turn.

A turned nut straight after raising flop with a gutter.

Value Owning
Making value bets with a hand that has less than 50% equity when called.

Voluntarily Put Money In Pot (VPIP)
The frequency at which a player limps, calls, or raises preflop.

Volatile Board
A flop texture where equities will often shift on the turn and river.  See “dynamic”.

An illusory cooler where one player makes a massive mistake equity mistake and loses his stack with a strong but second best hand; also known as a Jam Basket.

Wet Board
A board texture that allows for a lot of logical hands to continue. Often made up of medium rank connected cards. Ex: KT9tt, Tc8c6s-7c-Ac.

“Walk In, Fuck Shit Up, Walk Out” a hashtag used by instagram poker players.

Winning Player
A forum poster who offers reciprocal advice under the guise of questionable positive low stakes results. A weak player or fish, in general.

Young Man Coffee. Is very much an OMC, but younger.  They usually only continue with the nuts, often under the illusion of playing a GTO style.