behavior

Cosa Nostra, or The History of an Illusion

In Where the Red Fern Grows, we learn about the one great weakness of a wily and dangerous creature. Tormented by greed and curiosity, the ferocious, clever, ever-wild scavenger – and his desirable pelt – is defeated and captured by a terribly simple trick: a shiny piece of metal nailed into a hole. The raccoon happens upon the trap and grips the metal with his rapacious paw. Unwilling to let go of the precious debris, inhibited by his own nature, he is soon discovered and clubbed to death.

the fourflusher
Five Reels of Lively Action, y’all

Down goes an otherwise worthy opponent. The society of poker winners has also defeated their marks with stupendously simple tricks that make dupes of nearly everyone. The deck itself has been expanded over time to include more cards and suits, on the surface to enliven the game but essentially so that the fish have more to chase. Later, when “fourflushing” became a synonym for trying to swindle with the losing hand (among other things)– indicating that the structure of the game had been grasped – the professionals once again moved the yardsticks.

The modern gamblers soon started to perfect or, lacking a more moral intellect, find ways around, the deck itself. In other words, the winners of the coming generations continued to either pierce the logic of the game or perfect scamming people- you were either a Stu or a Puggy or a middling nobody. Later, the Stus continued to improve their strategy. Now you were a Brian Townsend, understanding the math in a newly precise way, and then a Phil Galfond or Tom Dwan, understanding actions and ranges, etc. – and so on, down to the latest circumspect tweet from M. Libratus, Esq.

One reason these edges have grown so slim is because many of yesteryear’s fish have joined the fat side of the table. A convenient development with a fun twist: because, the scammers now scam their fellow serious poker players more and more – don’t forget about the Puggies. Check out the official clearinghouse for scandal, named “Twoplustwo” for some reason, for more detail. (I guess it stands for “as obvious as,” or perhaps ifitwalkslikeaduck.com was taken.)

So, with the pool of suckers seemingly dwindling, today’s Stus and Puggies (and those damn middling nobodies, such as yours truly) have in larger and larger number all gotten together: we are now in the era of poker education. Open Source Poker. The ledger has been revealed. The spirit of the new flush cards for the riverboat gamblers, of Doyle beating even those who dared cheat, and of the first slack-jawed, acned masters of Pokerstove and Party Poker and Stack-a-Donk, is dead and buried forever. The modern poker era is over, probably with Black Friday being the point of no return.

Therefore, if you are reading this, you may feel you are in the midst of the race to the bottom of the poker story arc. Scientists are solving the near infinite number of decision possibilities, while closer to the oil-soothed and fraying felt, winning players who have carved out a hole in wall to hide in are spilling what they know for cash, like mobsters who know they can’t move up.

So Stu and Puggy’s present-day descendants are now fighting a two-front war. In a game of low information, there has never been more. Poker is in such a state that I’ve noticed one notable lifetime winner has started calling himself a gambler, and not a poker player as he used to. Why? Because he can see the writing on the wall and considers it important to not pigeonhole himself. (Well, also because he prides himself on not being a fish – think about that, too.)

Yet what if you have no such foresight? What if you have no skills, just an honest love of the game? What do the members of the herd do? What does your sixth-favorite forum poster MackerelKing123 do when the whale’s mouth approaches?

Well, first off, members of the school gather together for protection. In today’s poker environment – one where the ocean is so acidic the sharks are inviting the fish over for a chat about how bad it is– the herd instinct has never been greater.

And that (I am genuinely sorry for the incredibly convoluted wind-up, it seemed necessary during Syrah Uno) is why we hear from us so often.

-from the NYT Magazine, “We”, by Ben Zimmer

It is difficult to find the origins of poker’s obsession with what is usually known as the Royal We. It’s a special grammatical relationship, and a formal one that stands out – all the more so in the extremely casual English of the poker world. After all, most players struggle to put a coherent sentence together, and their mentors aren’t doing them much of a favor: I used to think poker books were so badly written because it was an intentional method of keeping secrets obtusely accessible.

Obstinate, almost bewildering misspellings and grammar litter the poker landscape. For instance, why do players always say they are “loosing”? If it were a joke, like the more clearly traced “it’s a tarp,” it is one so obscure that its origins have long since been forgotten and no longer explain the phenomenon of deliberate illiteracy.

Nevertheless, one poker communication phenomenon surpasses all of this in its breadth and assumptive power: the obsession with the Royal We.

While it is all too easy for my thesis to be that the mania of desiring to be among the winners drives the passion for the Royal We in poker, research into the dark origins of the favored pronoun yields mixed results.

If I go back in time to the first poker forums, the scandal clearinghouse’s rec.gambling.poker origins, I find signs of sanity but premonitions of things to come. Much of the use of we centers on action at the table – the actual plural is nearly necessary, as in these first two samples.

Note this long paragraph where the poster certainly could have used the Royal We at any time:

A contemporary player would often write instead, “We are in the BB.” “We have AJ off.” “We likely have the best hand.”  “Should we have tried…”

Etc. A surface scour of these early days of online information sharing yields much more of this standard subject-predicate relationship.

Not always. This poster uses the Royal We interchangeably – dare I say transitorily? He starts off asking, “Should I bet that $200 on the turn?” However, soon he slips – in appearance – into the Majestic, as you can see:

The “Tommy” being directly addressed, by the way, is none other than Mr. Angelo.

What’s going on here? Why does this poker player speak this way?

On examination, he seems to be getting more emotional, more invested in thinking through this spot. He’s getting both more precise and less objective at once. Interesting.

The poster, it seems, swings from description to a state of wanting everyone in on his situation. Is the Royal We a sort of manipulation? Does the poker player want you entangled in his troubles?

With a little more digging, I find a more contemporary overdose of this same we:

Yet is it not reasonable here? He is speaking about humans as a whole. How should he write?

This is key. It turns out that it’s not the Royal We at all, but the Editorial We, that is being used. This is the we of Editors and Scientists, a pronoun which expresses a collective and authoritative observation.

When – and here is an example – we need to address a concept as a whole, the Editorial We comes into play.

This is the poker forum’s favorite pronoun, and corrects the misconception of which we is really being used.

But… I’m still not satisfied.

The reason is because poker players greatly abuse the Editorial We. Worse, it’s especially abused by those who don’t know what they are talking about. One sees this mostly in specific strategy posts and conversations. Someone will ask me, “What do we do here?” Or say, “We should always be…”

This is annoying. First of all, it betrays that you think that there is one strategy or a universal action that is best. Second, it implies that no adjustment is being made. Third, and most irritating, is that it shows that you think your strategy is mine.

I don’t want to play like you. There is no we, pale face.

Petty grievance of a cranky poker player? Perhaps, but there is actually more to it – especially if you are one of those players interested in strategy.

You see, if you are adapting tactics from other players, it will take a long time to fully smooth out and incorporate them into your game. You’ve experienced this and know exactly what I am talking about. Further, this idea is related to a profound point: everything you do affects everything else you do and everyone around you.

You, in other wordscan’t ever play like me. There is no us.

There is no we. It’s an illusion.

Strategy has a personal, philosophical, stylistic aspect that can never be entirely copied.

This is also key, and it’s not something most equity pushers ever get, being convinced of a platonic, universal strategy.

Let’s look a little further, though, and see what I can find in poker literature. After all, ideas are codified in books, and if the Editorial We is a true poker phenomenon, it likely should be found beyond forums and conversations, and possibly exist in its most important texts. Or, perhaps, it too grew into commonality.

However, a quick perusal of some well known books reveals the we to be nearly absent from lexicon – that is, until our present day, forum influenced, Open Source Poker era.

In David Sklansky’s 1987 The Theory of Poker, the Editorial We does not make much of an appearance. In fact, this august poker tome’s central piece – the Fundamental Theorem of Poker, speaks to the reader: it’s “every time you play a hand…”

Move up into the Rounders years and check out Harrington On Cash Games, Vol I. Now the we surfaces. At first it seems that Harrington is simply going to follow the lead of Sklansky – lots of second person singular – but a quarter of the way in, we find what we were looking for. The Metagame chapter suddenly changes voices. “Here we’re in the realm…” “When we play deceptively…” “In effect, we become investors…” The Editorial We seems firmly in place. However, just as it appeared, it suddenly disappears. Turn a few pages to Hand Evaluation and Stack Sizes, and the author goes straight back to addressing you. Another transitory moment? It’s not clear and a little mixed up. As I go through the book, there’s both first person, second person singular, and our target, the second person plural – the we.

In 2005’s Super System 2 (sorry, someone made off with my leather bound vol. 1, curses upon you), you will find you are being spoken to. There is also a lot of first person, too – I’m not going to get a data set. Over sections by different authors on Online, Caro, Niche Concepts, Limit, O8, Stud8, PLO, TD, I can scarcely find but a few examples of we. One guess at this style is the authors themselves. With the exception of Negreanu, these are old school players, even at the time.

The Mental Game of Poker is the seminal extra-strategic book of the poker world, and was published in 2011. This is late in the day – Black Friday approacheth. What voice does Tendler prefer? It’s clearly the second person singular – very little we.

At this point, I am beginning to suspect that forums and books are essentially different. The authorial voice really might not lend itself to the Editorial We. Maybe near-live communication is at the heart of the matter, or perhaps books keep us away from sermonizing to each other.  In any case, I want to check one more, a book that is hyper-modern and born of the Open Source Poker Era. I’m a little nervous, really – what voice will it use?

On reopening 2013’s Applications of No-Limit Hold’em, I am not sure what to expect. After all, Sklansky employed the you, Harrington couldn’t settle on anything, and despite that, maybe it’s all just Twoplustwo publishing guidelines and I am seeking something in vain. However, it’s settled in a heartbeat. Janda makes his prefered voice clear – it’s the Editorial We, a slam dunk for my shaky and unscientific thesis, but one that makes sense.

From the very start – “We want to emphasize playing hands which…” – to key explanations “we need to have two value bets for every bluff…” – to complexities buried deep in the guide – “if we bet .75 on the turn” – Janda speaks the language of the contemporary poker player. He’s talking from an authority we all are presumed to take part in – we. (Hey, and don’t forget the possessive adjective – “if our turn betting range is perfectly polarized…”)

The we appears in Applications as a function of both the authority and sweep of the work but also as part of the contemporary culture it came out of – the gathering of the herd needing a safe, right answer.

This is our voice today. We, as Joey would say, is GTO.

I have found my shred of evidence.

“This table is reserved for face to face communication. Please join in!”

At the café where I write is a a large table, a table so large, the owner gave it a name on a placard: the Community Table. The sign informs the clientele that here they must be social and that this space has been engineered for our betterment: they know what is best.

However, one day when I was there, the owner was working with a team. Papers, binders, even a crude plaster model of the what appeared to be a block of the neighborhood. Despite the half-whispers and guarded questions and answers, it was very easy to understand they were attempting to leverage local laws against developers, so his voice is quiet and grave. The members of the squad look at me: should this guy be in on it?

Who is we? Please join in and tell me.

Now, of course, our dressed up pronoun has plenty of purpose and use ahead of it, naturally. There will always be a place for the Editorial We in poker, as groups must speak. The collective voice is a useful one.

Yet little is more overblown these days than the cry for solidarity, so it’s bound to strike a nerve with repeated hammering. We is often the shriek for an undisputed, uncontroversial consensus that pleases everyone- the one answer that is the least likely to be true. We is the voice of Middlebury and its castrati enablers. We is the voice which shames those with dissenting views while simultaneously taking no responsibility by hiding behind the collective.

Though the stakes are much lower in poker, the same dull we gets a little tiresome, and a little wearing that I have to use it and see it hammering away at better modes of thought. Maybe in our little game, our weird niche of the world, one where we supposedly value free thinking, we can shake, oh, just a little of its pomposity off and re-purpose it to, what, our actual best interests?

(Damn. Maybe I can’t shake it.)

Ok, there we go. I’m free again.

(Wait. For f—‘s sake!)

Poker’s we is like a yawn – tired and catching at once.

All I’m saying is: we should avoid it when we can.

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The OOP Lexicon is a user-developed poker glossary.

Absolute Position
Being last to act (e.g. closest to the button) postflop.

Advancing Leverage
Aggressive actions intended to shift the leverage point closer to the current street.

Analog
A bluff or value hand which is a natural candidate for balancing another hand because of their shared qualities, such as AA and AK; usually helps planning range splitting and line construction.

Auto profit threshold (APT)
A bluff made with positive expectation resulting from the opponent under defending vis-a-vis bet sizing. The inverse of MDF.

Balance
Choosing to support either value bets or bluffs with their converse.

Bet
A bet is a proposition.  It’s the first offer on the pot with regard to the outcome of the game. Each player, in turn, has the opportunity to lay or change the price on the pot to the rest of the players. “The language of poker.” The bet, as opposed to the raise, is most often and most easily allied to the merged pricing construction.

Block
To remove combinations of hands from a range based on cards in your hand or on the board.

Blockers
Cards which influence our combinatorial assumptions. Ex: We face resistance on T76ss while we hold As7d. Both our cards act as blockers. Our ace of spades blocks (limits) a number of flush draws our opponent could hold, while our seven blocks a number of two pair and sets our opponent could hold. *See also Block and Unblock

Blocker Bet
A small bet made by an out-of-position player.

Board Texture
The available community cards and the set of conditions which inform its relationship to a logical range.

Bottom
The worst hands in a betting range.  Depending on context this could be the worst hand in a value bet range or the bluffing section of polarized range.

Bounded
A range descriptor indicating a range shape with a specific high or low boundary.  A range bounded high won't contain some number of the best linear hands ranked from the top down.  This is equivalent to a "capped" range.  A range bounded low won't contain some number of the worst linear hands ranked from the bottom up.  This is often useful to describe a range that doesn't include any air or very weak hands.

Capitalization
A strategic mode in which a player is attempting to deny their opponent(s) equity share of the pot through aggression. Often referred to as “denying equity” or “buying up equity”.

Capped
A range is capped when it represents little to no nutted combinations as confirmed by prior action.

Cbet
A continuation bet. A bet made by the player with initiative as a continuation of their initiative on a prior street.

Clarity
The ability to accurately range an opponent based on all available information at a decision point.  An understanding of your hands exact equity.

Closing Action
Acting last where no subsequent action is possible behind you.  For example calling a UTG raise in the BB or calling in position postflop with no players behind.

Cold Call/Cold Bet
An action is considered “cold” when it comes from a player entering into the pot has not previously put chips voluntarily in the pot. Ex: the UTG opens, the BTN 3bets. If the SB were to call or raise, it would be a cold-call or a cold-4bet.

Combinatorics
The branch of mathematics the deals with finite number sets. Used in poker in determining the amount of combinations of certain hands in a range.

Complete
When a blind that is not the biggest blind calls the amount of the biggest blind. Ex: At $2/$5, action folds around to the SB and the SB completes. Meaning they just call. The BB can complete when there is a straddle.

Condensed
A capped range that contains only middling value hands. A range without the polarized portion.

Construction
Logical advancement of combinations across streets.

Dark Side of the Deck
The large swath of hands, often off-suit, that fall outside of conventional playable recommendations. Counter-equity hands.

Dead Money
Money in the pot that is not being fought for.  A passive player creates dead money when they call a bet preflop and looking to play fit-or-fold postflop. Dead Money is often confused with the money in the pot.

Delayed Cbet
A cbet made on the turn by the preflop raiser when the flop checked through.

Delaying Leverage
Passive actions intended to maintain a likely late street leverage point, or possibly to avoid a leverage point entirely.

Deviation
A strategic break from one’s standard construction as an exploit of a particular player’s profile or construction.

Diminishing Medium Value Category
A Seidman concept in which when one’s middling value hand range is too small and transparent to our opponent and thus either that range should be shifted into the top of a polarized range or the nutted portion should be shifted into the medium value range. Ex: AQo or TT being 3bet preflop.

Downbet
A cbet that is less than the preflop raise. Ex: BTN opens to $25, we 3bet to $90 from the SB, BTN calls. On the flop we cbet $70.

Dry Board
A board texture that yields relatively few logical hands value. Often containing one medium or high card and disconnected low cards. Ex: Q53r, T622r.

Dual Mentalities
A Seidman concept in which when we decide to go postflop with a weak hand against a nutted range, we should either be looking to out flop it or steal the pot away. We base our decision against the player type we are up against and never go post with both mentalities at once.

Dynamic Board
A flop texture in which the runout is very likely to change the order of top ranking hands. Ex: 954tt, 742r.

Effective Stack
The smallest stack to VPIP in a given hand. Their stack decides the amount of money that can be played for or threatened before an all-in.

Effective nuts
A value hand that can be played for stacks as if it were the actual nuts.  This is a relative hand ranking based on range assumptions and opponent type.

Efficiency
A measure of how well the equity of a hand is deployed. Efficiency can also be used as a measure of what is risked vs what is gained for a given bet size.

Either/Or Philosophy
A Seidman concept in which a particular street can be a very good spot for value, meaning our opponent is never folding, or a very good spot to bluff, meaning our opponent is never calling, but that those spots cannot be concurrent.

Elasticity
Borrowed from economics, a measure of the sensitivity of a range or hand relative to the price offered.  Ranges (or hands) described as elastic will narrow, sometimes quickly, in response to increases in price.  Those described as inelastic will not.

Equity
The percent pot share of a holding or range on any given street if the hand were to go to showdown with no further betting action.

Equity Pusher
A analytic approach to the game in which a player views the correct actions only through the lens of their hands equity vs. their opponent’s range. Often this player type has a lack of understanding of overall strategy and plays their range face up with few bluffs.

Expected Value
The mathematical formula for how much a player’s action is expected to make with their hand vs. their opponent’s range. EV = ($towin * %ofwin) - ($tolose * %ofloss)

Face Up
A player is playing their range “face up” when their actions directly correspond with their desired outcome. Ex: A player bets half-pot three streets with a range that has no bluffs. A player 3bets to 7x with JJ.

False Polarization
Otherwise known as Faux-Po; a polarizing action taken with a merged range.

Felted
The result of losing your entire table stakes. All the way down to the felt.

Float
A call of a cbet with a weak holding with the likely intention of taking the pot away when the opponent shuts down. Often done by an in position preflop caller.

Formation
The convergence of positions, stack depths, and preceding actions at a given decision point.

G-Bucks
A mathematical formula developed by Phil Galfond for calculating the expected value of one’s range construction vs. an opponent’s holding.

GIGO
A computer programming term that means "garbage in, garbage out" which also applies to poker forums when a poster seeks an in-depth conversation about a hand, but fail to provide pertinent information such as stack sizes, bets sizes, table dynamics and player tendencies.

Game Theory
The applied science of combining mathematical models with logic to craft winning poker strategies.

Game Theory Optimal
A set of strategies is GTO if no player can unilaterally deviate and increase his average profit. ~ Will Tipton.  GTO does not mean best possible response, highest EV, or maximally exploitative play.

Implied Odds
Additional value likely to be accrued if you make your hand on a later street.

Initiative
Sometimes referred to as the betting lead, a common situation in which the passive player yields to the aggressive player postflop, or the last aggressor continues betting on subsequent streets.

Isolate
A bet or raise intended to force out the rest of the field in order to play heads up against a weaker opponent who has entered the pot through limping, raising, or posting the blinds.

LAG
Loose aggressive player type. Generally overused and inaccurate.

Lead
A bet made from out of position after a passive action. Often referred to as a donk bet on the flop.

Leveling
He knows that I know that he knows I know.

Leverage
A bet or raise that signals the hand will be played for stacks.  Within reason, it is accomplished by betting with a sizing that will create RSP equal to 1 on the following street.

LFI
Limp First In

Linear
A consecutive range of hands decreasing in strength from top to bottom; generally meaning value hands. Equivalent to "merged."

Lockdown Board
A board on which the nuts have often already been made.  More prevalent in PLO but sometimes useful in no-limit, for example on monotone flops and boards with available common straights e.g. JT9, T98, 987, etc.

Merge
1) A range of hands that includes both strong and medium value; 2) in reference to medium value; 3) the merged construction describes the natural representation of a wide range through a bet.

Mini Stop-N-Go
A Seidman concept, a line taken by a OOP PFR where flop is check/called and turn is lead.

Minimum Defense Frequency (MDF)
The necessary defending (calling/raising) frequency to prevent an opponent from auto-profiting.  The inverse of APT.

Natural Action
A check, bet, or raise which is exactly suited to a player's range and situation (e.g. a pfr's continuation bet on AK2r).

Nit
A player who will not put chips into the pot without a very strong and sometimes only nutted hand.

Nuts
The best possible hand.

Nuts-To-Air Ratio (NAR)
In a polarized betting line, the ratio of value to bluff.  As used by Seidman, not limited to polarization but sometimes used to label general opponent tendency of value to bluff.

OMC
Old Man Coffee. Typically an older, retired player that likes to play bingo with ATC, but will only continue with the nuts.

Open
The first voluntary action. The first action or bet to voluntarily enter the pot.

Overbet
A bet that is more than the size of the pot.

Perceived Range
Refers to the range of hands that your opponent thinks you could have in a certain playing situation. This can be interpreted and thus misinterpreted from your playing style and position at the table.

Polarized
A range consisting of very strong and very weak hands.

Post Oak Bluff
A small bluff on a late street that has little chance of winning the pot.  Generally interpreted as “gutless” in the past but now fulfilling certain functions as betting efficiencies are understood.

Positional Protection
When the strength of a range is perceived to be capped or uncapped based on which position an action is taken from.

Protected
When an action or player is perceived to have strong hands in its range.

Protection Bet
A wager which denies equity to hands which will only give action if they significantly improve; "a value bet which does not want a call."

Raise
The rejection of the offered price and the laying of a new higher price.  Raises represent a more narrow range of hands and trend towards polarization.

Range Advantage
Implementation or study tool that refers to 1) most basically, equity measurement of one range against another; 2) or also including a combination of further factors including availability of nutted hands, the nuances of the runout, and positional protection.

Range Manipulation
Deliberate line work/bet sizing made to narrow a range or keep a range wide.

Range Switch
A deliberate change in range composition made to thwart a player who is reading our range too accurately in any spot.  Reduces transparency, fights assumptions, and wins the leveling war if implemented correctly.

Ratio of Stack To Pot
RSP. The stack to pot ratio at any point in a hand, generally used post-flop as opposed to Stack to Pot Ratio.

Realization
Taking a hand to showdown and realizing its full equity.  Generally used with regard to passive actions.

Reciprocity
The mutual exchange of chips resulting from similar play and ideas.  Reciprocity is a common bi-product of group-think.  A true edge by definition cannot be reciprocal.

Relative Position
A player’s position measured against the aggressor's position.  Generally this is used going to the flop.  For example, if UTG raises and several players call behind, calling in the big blind would give you the best relative position.  You will act after seeing how the field responds to a likely continuation from the preflop aggressor.  In the same scenario calling immediately after the preflop aggressor results in the worst relative position.  You will have to act immediately after a continuation without seeing how the remaining players will respond.  Strong relative position confers an information edge.

Retention
The ability of hand to maintain equity across streets against a betting range or as part of a betting range.

Reverse Implied Odds (RIO)
Hands that often win small pots or lose large pots suffer from reverse implied odds.

Robustness
Popularized by Mathew Janda, a descriptor for how well a hand retains equity over streets of play.  Hands described as robust have equity that does not suffer as an opponent's range becomes stronger.  Often these hands are currently both strong and invulnerable, or have the ability to become very strong by the river, relative to the opponent's range.

Runout
Fourth and Fifth Street cards following a given flop texture.

Scale of Protection
Poker theorem which states that the more protected or strong an opponent's range is, the higher the degree of denial or retention a counter will require.

Sklansky Bucks
Dollars won (or lost) in expected value regardless of actual hand result.

Smurf
Any one of many possible poker archetypes found at low stakes games.

Squeeze
A reraise made after a player has raised and one or more players has called in-between.

Static Board
A flop texture in which the runout is unlikely to change the order of top ranking hands. Ex: AK7r, KK4r.

Stop-N-Go
A passive action followed by an aggressive action, out of position.  For example, a call followed by a lead on the next street.

Streets of Value
A crude shorthand measurement for how much betting a hand can tolerate and still be best at showdown more often than not.

TAG
Tight aggressive opponent type. Generally overused and misapplied.

TAG's Dilemma
The paradox created by having a top-heavy range played so aggressively that it misuses equity vis-à-vis position and holding.

The Great Range Fantasy
The common idea that we know our opponent’s range and frequencies precisely; most commonly seen in post-hoc analysis to justify microedge decisions.

Thin Value
A bet that is only slightly more likely to be called by worse than by better. Associated with the merged pricing construction and bet-fold lines.

Three Fundamentals
The most fundamental variables for decision making: position, stack size, and community cards.

Top
The best hands in a given range.

Two-Way Bet
A bet that expects calls from worse hands and incorrect folds at the same time, a simultaneous value bet and bluff line.

Upstuck
The psychological effect of feeling like you’re losing because your stack size isn’t as large as it once was during a session, even though it’s more than what you’re in the game for.

(e.g. You bought in for $100, ran it up $450, but now only have $175 in front of you.)

Unblock
A hand that has no negative card removal effects on the target range.  Bottom set, for example, unblocks top pair top kicker.

Uncapped
A range that is perceived to contain the nuts in any given line.  Capped ranges may become uncapped during transitions for example from preflop to flop, or flop to turn.

Unicorn
A turned nut straight after raising flop with a gutter.

Value Owning
Making value bets with a hand that has less than 50% equity when called.

Voluntarily Put Money In Pot (VPIP)
The frequency at which a player limps, calls, or raises preflop.

Volatile Board
A flop texture where equities will often shift on the turn and river.  See “dynamic”.

Warmer
An illusory cooler where one player makes a massive mistake equity mistake and loses his stack with a strong but second best hand; also known as a Jam Basket.

Wet Board
A board texture that allows for a lot of logical hands to continue. Often made up of medium rank connected cards. Ex: KT9tt, Tc8c6s-7c-Ac.

WIFSUWO
“Walk In, Fuck Shit Up, Walk Out” a hashtag used by instagram poker players.

Winning Player
A forum poster who offers reciprocal advice under the guise of questionable positive low stakes results. A weak player or fish, in general.

YMC
Young Man Coffee. Is very much an OMC, but younger.  They usually only continue with the nuts, often under the illusion of playing a GTO style.